# Expressing Concentration of Solution

## Expressing Concentration of Solution

The amount of solute dissolved in a unit volume of solvent is called its concentration. If a solution contains a very small amount of solute dissolved in a solvent, it is called a dilute solution. The solution is called a concentrated solution if an appreciable amount of solute is dissolved in a solvent.

If a solution contains at a given temperature as much solute as can be dissolved, the solution is said to be Saturated.

If the amount of solute dissolved, is less than this amount, solution is called Unsaturated Solution.

If the amount of solute dissolved is more than the saturation value, the solution is said to be Supersaturated.

The amount of solute in grams that can be dissolved in 100 grams of a solvent to form a saturated solution at a definite temperature is called the Solubility.

### Mass or Weight Percentage

The mass percentage of a component is defined as the mass of the component per 100gram of the solution. If a solution contains two components A and B, then

Mass percentage of A = {mass of A/ (mass of A + mass of B)}*100

### Weight / Volume percentage

It is the amount of solute in grams present in 1000mL of the solution. Thus, we may write

Weight/Volume % = {Weight of Solute (g) / Volume of Solution (mL)}*100

In case of a liquid dissolved inn another liquid, the concentration is usually expressed in volume percentage.

Volume Percentage of a component in solution may be defined as the volume of component per 100 parts by volume of the solution.

Vol. % of A = {Vol. of A / (Vol. of A + Vol. of B)}*100

### Parts per Million (ppm)

It is defined as the number of parts of a component per million parts of the solution.

Ppm of Component = (Mass of component/Total mass of solution)*106

### Strength

It is the number of grams of the solute dissolved per litre of the solution.

Strength = {Weight of Solute(g) / Vol. of Solution(L)}

### Normality(N)

It is the number of gram equivalents of solute dissolved per litre of a solution.

N = Number of gram equivalents of solute / Vol. of solution in litres

N = Number of milliequivalents* / Volume of Solution in mL

N = Strength of solute in (g/L) / Gram equivalent** of Solute

N = Wt. of solute in gm / (equivalent wt. of solute * Vol. of solution in L)

*1 meq = 10-3 equivalent
** Equivalent mass of an element is the mass of the element which combines with or displaces 1.00g parts by mass of hydrogen or 8 parts by mass of oxygen or 35.5 parts by mass of chlorine.

Equivalent mass of an element = Atomic mass of the element / Valency

Eq. mass of an Acid = Molecular mass of an acid / Basicity of the acid

Eq. mass of Base = Mol. Mass of base / Acidity of the base

Eq. mass of salt = Mol. Mass of the salt / Total positive valency of metal atoms

### Normal Solution

A normal solution of a substance is that solution which contains one gram equivalent weight of it per litre of the solution.

N/2 = Semi normal

N/5 = Pent normal

N/100 = Cent normal

5N = Penta Normal

10N = Deca normal

### Molarity(M)

It is the number of moles of solute dissolved per litre of the solution.

M = Number of moles of solute / Vol. in L

M = Number of millimoles of solute / Vol. in mL

M = Strength of solute in (g/lit) / Molecular wt. of solute

M = Weight of solute in gm / (Molecular wt. of solute*Vol. of Solution in L

M = N* Eq. wt. / Mol. Wt.

### Molality(m)

It is the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1000gm of the solvent.

m = number of moles of solute *1000 / wt. of solvent in gm

m = number of millimoles of solute / wt. of solvent in gm

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