The important points in the Solution chapter
- A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
- A solution consisting of three components is called a ternary solution.
- In a binary solution, component present in small amount is called Solute and the one present in excess is known as the solvent.
- Depending upon the nature of the solute and solvent, there are nine different types of solutions.
- Solutions are classified as solid, liquid, or gaseous solutions depending upon the nature of the substance acting as the solvent.
- Solid solutions in which atoms or ions of one substance occupy the sites of other similar substance in its crystal lattice are known as substitutional solid solutions.
- Solutions in which atoms of one kind occupy the voids that exist between the atoms of the host lattice are called Interstitial Solutions.
- The amount of solute dissolved in a unit volume of the solvent is called the concentration of solution.
- Solution having a small amount of the solute is called a dilute solution and the containing large amount of the solute is called a concentrated solution.
- Concentration terms involving volume, i.e., normality, molarity, and formality change with change in temperature.
- Molality, mole fraction and ppm which do not involve volumes but involve weights are independent of temperature.
- Molar aqueous solutions are more concentrated than molal solutions.
- The dissolved oxygen in water helps in the survival of aquatic life.
- Azeotropes are not definite compounds but are actually mixtures of compounds.
- An azeotropic solution of two liquids has a boiling point higher than either of them when it shows negative deviations from Raoult’s law.
- An azeotropic solution has a boiling point lower than either of them when it shows positive deviations from Raoult’s law.
- Osmotic pressure is developed due to osmosis.
- Osmotic pressure in case of aqueous solutions can be measured by Morse and Frazer method or by Berkeley and Hartley method. However, these methods are not suitable for non-aqueous solutions because the semipermeable membrane of Cu2Fe(CN)6 gets dissolved in non-aqueous solvents.
- The osmotic pressure of non-aqueous solutions can be measured by the Townsends method (negative Pressure method). The semipermeable membrane used in this method is prepared by powdered glass and special clay.
- Osmotic pressure is the best colligative property to determine the molecular mass of polymers such as proteins.
- Isotonic solutions of non-volatile non-electrolyte solutes have same molar concentration i.e., C1=C2. However, C1 may not be equal to C2 if solute dissociates or associates in the solvent.
- A 0.91% or 0.16M NaCl solution is isotonic with human RBC’s.
- Osmolarity is the term used by physiologists in the study of osmotic behaviour of solutes which either dissociates or associates in solution and is equal to the product of molarity and the number of particles produced per formula unit of the solute.
- For solutes showing dissociation, experimental molar mass is less than the calculated value and i>1. For solutes undergoing association, experimental molar mass is greater than the calculated value and i<1.
- Osmotic pressure is the best colligative property to determine the mol. Wt. of non-volatile substances.
- The pressure developed inside a cell due to inflow of water into a cell is called Turgor.
- Ethylene glycol is known as Antifreeze and is commonly used to depress the F.P. of water in car radiators.
- Konowaloff’s Rule – In case of non-ideal solutions, the vapour pressure is relatively richer in the component whose addition to the solution results in an increase in total vapour pressure.
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