The important points in the Solution chapter

jellyfish, underwater, sea

The important points in the Solution chapter

  1. A solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances.
  2. A solution consisting of three components is called a ternary solution.
  3. In a binary solution, component present in small amount is called Solute and the one present in excess is known as the solvent.
  4. Depending upon the nature of the solute and solvent, there are nine different types of solutions.
  5. Solutions are classified as solid, liquid, or gaseous solutions depending upon the nature of the substance acting as the solvent.
  6. Solid solutions in which atoms or ions of one substance occupy the sites of other similar substance in its crystal lattice are known as substitutional solid solutions.
  7. Solutions in which atoms of one kind occupy the voids that exist between the atoms of the host lattice are called Interstitial Solutions.
  8. The amount of solute dissolved in a unit volume of the solvent is called the concentration of solution.
  9. Solution having a small amount of the solute is called a dilute solution and the containing large amount of the solute is called a concentrated solution.
  10. Concentration terms involving volume, i.e., normality, molarity, and formality change with change in temperature.
  11. Molality, mole fraction and ppm which do not involve volumes but involve weights are independent of temperature.
  12. Molar aqueous solutions are more concentrated than molal solutions.
  13. The dissolved oxygen in water helps in the survival of aquatic life.
  14. Azeotropes are not definite compounds but are actually mixtures of compounds.
  15. An azeotropic solution of two liquids has a boiling point higher than either of them when it shows negative deviations from Raoult’s law.
  16. An azeotropic solution has a boiling point lower than either of them when it shows positive deviations from Raoult’s law.
  17. Osmotic pressure is developed due to osmosis.
  18. Osmotic pressure in case of aqueous solutions can be measured by Morse and Frazer method or by Berkeley and Hartley method. However, these methods are not suitable for non-aqueous solutions because the semipermeable membrane of Cu2Fe(CN)6 gets dissolved in non-aqueous solvents.
The important points in the Solution chapter
  1. The osmotic pressure of non-aqueous solutions can be measured by the Townsends method (negative Pressure method). The semipermeable membrane used in this method is prepared by powdered glass and special clay.
  2. Osmotic pressure is the best colligative property to determine the molecular mass of polymers such as proteins.
  3. Isotonic solutions of non-volatile non-electrolyte solutes have same molar concentration i.e., C1=C2. However, C1 may not be equal to C2 if solute dissociates or associates in the solvent.
  4. A 0.91% or 0.16M NaCl solution is isotonic with human RBC’s.
  5. Osmolarity is the term used by physiologists in the study of osmotic behaviour of solutes which either dissociates or associates in solution and is equal to the product of molarity and the number of particles produced per formula unit of the solute.
  6. For solutes showing dissociation, experimental molar mass is less than the calculated value and i>1. For solutes undergoing association, experimental molar mass is greater than the calculated value and i<1.
  7. Osmotic pressure is the best colligative property to determine the mol. Wt. of non-volatile substances.
  8. The pressure developed inside a cell due to inflow of water into a cell is called Turgor.
  9. Ethylene glycol is known as Antifreeze and is commonly used to depress the F.P. of water in car radiators.
  10. Konowaloff’s Rule – In case of non-ideal solutions, the vapour pressure is relatively richer in the component whose addition to the solution results in an increase in total vapour pressure.

You May Also Like-
What are imperfection or defects of Solids
What Do you know about Solid State?
What do you know about Solid Waste??
Pr
ocessing of solid waste and On-site Handling by engineering System
What do you kno
w about Hazardous Waste??
Landfill Disposal of Solid Waste

Right Understanding

Right Understanding We all know that the Human Desire is to be in continuous happiness which is the need of I (self). But do you know, from where Continuous happiness will come? No, right! So continuous happiness is to be in Right Understanding, Right Feeling, and Right Thought that is Activity of I (Self). Do…

Continue Reading Right Understanding

Where We Are

Where We Are (Self-Evolution) We exist as human being. We want to live a fulfilling life. We have some desires and we have some programs for the fulfilment of it. We need to understand our basic aspiration and program for its fulfillment correctly and comprehensively. Only then, we can ensure fulfillment. We should explore ourselves…

Continue Reading Where We Are

Highway Construction

Highway Construction Embankment Construction Materials and General Requirements The materials used in embankments, subgrades, earthen, shoulders, and miscellaneous backfills shall be soil, moorum, gravel, a mixture of these. Clay having liquid limit exceeding 70 and plasticity index exceeding 45; shall be considered unsuitable for embankment. Sub-grade and top 500mm portion of the embankment just below…

Continue Reading Highway Construction

Special Concretes

Special Concretes Concrete is most vital material in modern construction. In addition to normal concrete, other varieties in use are, high strength and high-performance concrete, self-compacting, lightweight, high density, fiber reinforced, polymer, colored concrete, etc. The making of concrete is an art as well as a science. Special types of concrete are those with out-of-the-ordinary…

Continue Reading Special Concretes

Marketing Practices

Marketing Practices Success in the world of business, no matter how you earn it, you have to rule on the marketplace. Although luck plays a role in the outcome of the market strategies. In the business decisions, there should be the understanding of market otherwise the failure will take place by the marked decisions. While…

Continue Reading Marketing Practices

Risk Analysis

Risk Analysis The risk that remains after the implementation of controls is called the residual risk. All systems will have residual risk because it is virtually impossible to completely eliminate risk to an IT system. In other words, we can say that there are two main parts of the security risk analysis known as Quantitative…

Continue Reading Risk Analysis

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *