Processing of solid waste and On-site Handling by engineering System
Segregation of wastes into degradable and non-degradable wastes is to be done to recover and divert non-degradable wastes (Electrical items, plastic, tires, etc.) and degradable items (Wood, textiles, etc.) to its recycling plant and if possible, it can be reused.
It is a tedious process which therefore needs labor. Magnets can also be used to separate ferrous metals.
This process helps in reducing the amount of wastes going for composting.
There is some equipment for separating the waste:
- Mechanical component separator
- Magnetic separator
- Suspended magnet separator
- Magnetic pulley
- Drying and Dewatering
2: Size Reduction
Volume reduction of refuse mainly occurs in the following ways:
2.1: Mechanical Volume Reduction
Mechanical volume separation is perhaps the most important factor in the development and operation of solid waste management system.
Vehicles equipped with compaction mechanisms are used for the collection of most municipal solid waste-
- Stationary Equipment
- Movable Equipment
This is required to convert large sized wastes into some smaller pieces. Size reduction helps in obtaining the final product in a reasonably uniform and considerably reduced size in comparison to the original form.
Some equipment is given below-
2.3: Chemical Volume Reduction
2.4: Thermal Volume Reduction
Screening is the most common form of separating solid waste depending on their size by the use of one or more screening surfaces.
Screening has a number of applications in refuse resources and energy recovery systems.
Screens can be used before or after shredding and after air separation of wastes in various applications dealing with both light and heavy fraction materials.
- Drum Screens
- Disc Screens
- Vibrating Screens
- Rotary Mesh Screens
A commercial trash compactor like the cardboard baler is designed to compact cardboard waste and compress it into nearly tied bales all at the town of a button.
4.2: Self-contained compactor-
It is such as the industrial garbage compactor can manage all industrial waste, whether solid or liquid.
4.3: Stationary or portable-
It depends on the type of waste to be compacted, location of that waste so on.
4.4: Free standing-
Free standing compactors with a large feed opening and a low feed height provide both safe and easy ways of operation in places that have a high turnover of waste being handles by a lot of people.
Baling is a process that compresses material into a block (bale) which is secured by plastic or wire strapping. The process reduces the volume of the material which-
- Reduces loose waste on site
- Reduces transportation/Waste disposal costs
- Turns waste into a revenue generating product
- Car balers/Loggers
- Fully Auto Channel Balers
- Single Ram Metal Baler
- Twin Ram Metal Baler
- Three Ram Metal Baler
- Mini Baler
- Vertical Mill Baler
6: Palletisation of Municipal Solid Waste
Municipal Solid Waste is a poor-quality fuel and its pre-processing is necessary to prepare fuel pallets to improve its consistency, storage and handling characteristics, combustion behaviour and calorific value.
Pellets can be used for heating plant boilers and for the generation of electricity.
They can also act as a good substitute for coal and wood for domestic and industrial purpose.
The important application of refuse derived fuel (RDF) are found in the following sphere’s-
- Cement Kiln
- RDF Power Plant
- Coal-fired Power Plant
- Industrial Steam/Heat Boilers
- Pellet Stoves
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