Submitted by

Abhijeet Katiyar


In partial fulfillment of industrial training for the award of the degree of




Rajkiya Engineering College, Mainpuri


NH84, Road Nauner, Bhongoan – Mainpuri – Shikohabad Road, Mainpuri

 Uttar Pradesh 205001

June – July 2019


I would like to place on record my deep sense of gratitude to Mr. Madan Mohan Sir for his generous guidance, help and useful suggestions. We sincerely acknowledge him for giving his valuable guidance, support for literature survey, critical reviews and comments for our training.

I express my sincere gratitude to Madan Sir for his stimulating guidance and continuous encouragement.

I also wish to extend my thanks to Mr. Siddharth Sir and other workers for guiding and providing the knowledge related to machinery and processes.

I am extremely thankful to my faculty, REC Mainpuri and training placement cell REC Mainpuri for valuable suggestions and encouragement.



As an apart of curriculum, and for the partial fulfilment of the requirements for completion of Bachelor of technology degree from Rajkiya Engineering College, Mainpuri.

This report is based on the highway project. This report contains of the details of the execution of work which I have seen during my training period. This report consists of theoretical contents as well as practical as per my site experience.

Every student who has passed 90 credit hours or more can take this 3-hour credit course; the period of the training is 1 month.

The purpose of this course is to apply the theoretical knowledge into practical work.

There were two main parts of our training, the first part was the practical part and the second part is office work. The student can be trained as a site engineer; it’s given you the opportunity to supervise the construction work closely and properly.

The training started at and last till during this you can see the subsequent of the construction work and how to manage and control the work due to schedule.

In this report, I try to explain my 4 weeks experience in the NHAI, Kanpur. The content of all chapters is broadly explained and it is constructed from the practical basis of the site works.

National Highway Authority of India (An Overview):

The National Highways Authority of India (NHAI) is an autonomous agency of the Government of India, set up in 1988, and is responsible for the management of a network of over 50,000 km of National Highways out of 1,15,000 km in India. It is a nodal agency of the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways. NHAI has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Indian Space Research Organization for satellite mapping of highways.

The NHAI was created through the promulgation of the National Highways Authority of India Act, 1988. Section 16(1) of the Act states that the function of NHAI is to develop, maintain and manage the national highways and any other highways vested in, or entrusted to, it by the Government of India. In February 1995, NHAI came into operations and was formally made an autonomous body.    It is responsible for the development, maintenance, and management of National Highways, totaling over 92,851.05 km (57,694.97 mi) in length. The NHAI is also responsible for the toll collection on several highways.


The Department of a country depends on the connectivity of various places with adequate road networks. Roads are the major channel of transportation for carrying goods and passengers. They play a significant role in improving the socio-economic standards of a region. Roads constitute the most important mode of communication in areas where railways have not developed much and from the basic infrastructure for the development and economic growth of the country. The benefits from the investment in the road sector are indirect, long-term, and not immediately visible. Roads are important assets for any nation.

However, merely creating these assets is not enough, it has to be planned carefully and a pavement that is not designed properly deteriorates fast. India is a large country having huge resources for materials.  If these local materials are used properly, the cost of construction can be reduced. These are various type of pavement which differ in the suitability in different environments. Each type of pavement has its own merits and demerits. Despite a large number of seminars and conferences, still in India, 98% of roads are having flexible pavements. A lot of research has been made on the use of Waste Materials but the role of these materials is still limited. So, there is a need to take a holistic approach and mark the areas where these are most suitable.

India has one of the largest road networks in the world (over 3 million km at present). For the purpose of management and administration, roads in India are divided into the five categories which are on the next page:


The National Highways are intended to facilitate medium and long-distance inter-city passenger and freight traffic across the country. The state highways are supposed to carry the traffic along the major centres within the state. Other District Roads and Village Roads provide villages accessibility to meet their social needs as also the means to transport agriculture produce from village to nearby markets. Major District Roads provide the secondary function of linkage between main roads and rural roads.

The successful operation of various schemes for the Public Work Department engineers and supervisory boards in different districts of the engineer’s office has been settled. Activities by planning, execution and quality control etc. remove impediments find joy in relation to the supervision over the activities are focused. Various schemes operated by the Department of the Office of the Regional Chief Engineers and Chief Engineers Office.

Working Site:

The working of the widening of the Chakeri to Allahabad highway is between the chainage 483.687 km to 628.753 km. It covers a length of 145.066 Km. In the progress of the widening of highway to 6 lanes, the maintenance of the existing 4 lane highway will be done by the concessionaire.

Item of work:

As per contract agreement-

E/W up to top of subgrade282.322 Km
Granular sub-base282.322 Km
Water Mix Macadam112.276 Km
Dry Lean Concrete170.056 Km
Box Culverts302.000 No.
Road side drains128.320 Km

Land Acquisition:

Land acquisition in India refers to the process by which the union or a state government in India acquires private land for the purpose of industrialization, development of infrastructural facilities or urbanization of the private land, and provides compensation to the affected landowners and their rehabilitation and resettlement.

Land acquisition in India is governed by the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 (LARR), and which came into force from 1 January 2014. Till 2013, land acquisition in India was governed by the Land Acquisition Act of 1894. On 31 December 2013, the President of India promulgated an ordinance with an official mandate to “meet the twin objectives of farmer welfare; along with expeditiously meeting the strategic and developmental needs of the country”.

An amendment bill was then introduced in Parliament to endorse the Ordinance. Lok Sabha passed the bill but the same is still lying for passage by the Rajya Sabha. On 30 May 2015, President of India promulgated the amendment ordinance for the third time. Union Government of India has also made and notified the Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement (Social Impact Assessment and Consent) Rules, 2014 under the Act to regulate the procedure. The land acquisition in Jammu and Kashmir is governed by the Jammu and Kashmir Land Acquisition Act 1934.

The following steps are involved in the process of land acquisition:

  1. Notice: The first step of this process is for the relevant authority to provide ‘notice of intention to resume’ to the property owner. This means the government is required to inform any person who is eligible for compensation, including any mortgagees or people who otherwise hold some sort of stock in the land. The notice will also include a time and place where the recipient could potentially raise an objection.
  2. Object: The second step in a compulsory land acquisition case is to object – in order to do this, you must appear before the relevant authority at the time and place specified on your notice. The constructing authority will decide, based on the nature of your objection, whether or not to continue with the project. If they want to move forward, you are not able to object again – for this reason, it’s important to seek the help of a lawyer right from the beginning.
  3. Apply: After the objection has been overturned, the construction authority must apply (within 12 months) to the relevant Minister for permission to take the land mentioned on the initial notice. The application must include all the information in the case, including the names and addresses of the people entitled to receive compensation as well as the objections brought to the table. From there, the Minister will look over the application and make a decision on whether or not to proceed with the project.
  4. Resume: If the project is approved, the authorities will draft a ‘resumption agreement’ – this document will include the details of how the process will occur, as well as the compensation agreement. From here, there are a number of possible ways that the constructing authority could proceed; touch base with your property settlement lawyer to be briefed on the specifics of your case.
  5. Compensate: In order to be compensated, you must file a claim with the constructing authority within three years of the day the land was acquired. The claim must have all the necessary information, including the value of the land, the amount you are claiming, and your signature. From there, the authorities will assess your claim and decide whether the amount is appropriate.

Compulsory land acquisition cases can be quite difficult and stressful to navigate on your own, so contact a Cairns lawyer today to make sure you get the most compensation possible.

Right of Way:

Right of way (RoW) is the total land width required for the project highway, to accommodate the roadway, side drains, service road, tree plantation, utilities, etc. The desirable Right of way for non-urban and urban areas should be prescribed in IRC:73 and IRC:86 respectively.

A minimum Right of Way (ROW) of 60 m should be available for the development of a 4-lane highway. The Authority would acquire the additional land required if any.

Right of Way
Fig-1: Right of Way

Grade Separated Structures

The structures through which the traffic flows at different levels are called grade separated structures.

  • A grade separated structure which is provided for crossing of vehicles under the Project Highway is called as Vehicular Underpass (VUP)
  • A grade separated structure which is provided for crossing of vehicles over the Project Highway is called as Vehicular Overpass (VOP).
  • A structure provided below the Project Highway to cross the pedestrians is called Pedestrian Underpass (PUP).
  • A structure provided below the Project Highway to cross the catties is called Cattle Underpass (CUP).
  • A pedestrian/cattle underpass through which light vehicles of height up to 3m can also pass is called Light Vehicular Underpass (LVUP)
  • Flyover is synonymous to VUPA/OP.
  • A structure provided above the Project Highway to cross pedestrians is called Foot Over bridge.
  • A structure provided over the railway lines to carry the Project Highway is called Road Over Bridge (ROB).
  • A structure provided below the railway lines to carry the Project Highway is called Road Under Bridge (RUB).
  • A Trumpet interchange is a grade separator structure provided at major T-junction facilitating uninterrupted flow of traffic for in each direction.
  • A Cloverleaf is a grade separator structure provided at a major cross road junction facilitating uninterrupted flow of traffic in each direction.

Methodology for construction works

Setting out:

The Contractor shall establish working benchmarks tied with the Reference benchmark in the area soon after taking possession of the site. The working benchmarks shall be at the rate of 4 per Km and also at or near all drainage structures, over bridges and underpasses.

In order to facilitate the setting out of the works, the centre line of the carriageway or highway must be accurately established by the contractor and approved by the engineer.

It must then be accurately referenced in a manner satisfactory to the Engineer, at every 50m intervals in plain and rolling terrains and 20m intervals in hilly terrain and in all curve points as directed by the Engineer, with marker pegs and chainage boards set in or near the fence line.

Setting out
Fig-2: Setting out

Clearing and Grubbing-

This work shall consist of cutting, removing and disposing of all materials such as trees, bushes, shrubs, stumps, roots, grass, weeds, rubbish, top organic soil, etc. to an average depth of 150mm in thickness, which in the opinion of the Engineer are unsuitable for incorporation in the works, from the area of road land containing road embankment, drains, cross-drainage structures and such other areas as may be specified on the drawings or by the engineer.

Burning of debris shall be carried on concurrently with clearing operations so that the debris from each day’s operations is disposed of in that day. Burning shall be done far enough from the outer edge of the right-of-way to prevent injury to live trees, adjacent property, structures or pole lines. Further, the Contractor shall take all precautions to prevent the fires from spreading, and he shall be liable for any damages occasioned in the performance of this work. It may not be possible to obtain a burning permit if the fire hazard is severe.

Clearing and Grubbing
Fig-3: Clearing

Embankment Construction:

When an existing embankment and/or sub-grade is to be widened and its slopes are steeper than 1:4, continuous horizontal benches, each at least 300mm wide, shall be cut into the old slope for ensuring adequate bond with the fresh embankment/sub-grade material is to be added.

S.No.                          Type of workMax dry unit weight
1Upto 3 m height, not subjected to extensive floodingNot less than 15.2 kN/cu.m
2Exceeding 3 m heightNot less than 16 kN/cu.m
3Subgrade and earthen shoulders/verges/backfillNot less than 17.5 kN/cu.m
Table-2- Density Requirements of embankment and sub-grade materials
Fig-5: Embankment

Sub-grade Construction-

The sub-grade material shall be spread in layers of uniform thickness in the entire width with a motor grader.

The compacted thickness of each layer shall not be more than 250mm when vibratory roller/ vibratory soil compactor is used and not more than 200mm when 80-100kN static roller is used.

When an existing embankment or sub-grade is to be widened and its slopes are steeper 1:4, continuous horizontal benches each at least 300mm wide.

S.No.Type of work/materialCompaction as % of max. Lab dry density
1Sub-grade and earthen shouldersNot less than 97%
2EmbankmentNot less than 95%
3Expansive Clays 
 Sub-grade and 500mm portion just below the sub-gradeNot allowed
 Remaining portion of embankment90-95%
Table 3: Compaction requirements for Embankment and Sub-grade

Granular sub-base-

At the time of compaction moisture content of the material should be 1% above and 2%below of OMC( Optimum Moisture Content).

If thickness is not exceeding 100mm then we can use smooth wheeled rollers and if thickness is not exceeding 200mm then we can use vibratory roller.

The speed of roller shall not exceed 5km/hr.

Water Mix Macadam-

 Aggregates used are of the smaller sizes, varies between the 4.75 mm to 20 mm sizes and the binders (stone dust or quarry dust having PI (Plasticity Index) not less than 6%) are premixed in a batching plant or in a mixing machine. Then they are brought to the site for overlaying and compaction. The PI (plasticity Index) of the binding material is kept low because it should be a sound and non-plastic material. If the plasticity index is more then there are the chances of the swelling and more water retention properties. So, this value should be kept in mind.

S.No.TestTest MethodRequirements
1Los Angeles Abrasion valueIS:2386(Part 4)40%
2Aggregate impact valueIS:2386 or IS:564030%
3Combined Flakiness & Elongation indices (Total)IS:2386 (Part 1)35%
Table 4: Physical Requirements of Coarse Aggregates for WMM for sub-base or base course
  • OMC for mixing shall be determined in accordance with IS: 2720 after replacing the aggregate fraction retained on 22.4mm sieve size with material of 4.75mm to 22.4mm size.
  • If water absorption value test of coarse aggregate is greater than 2%, the soundness test shall be carried out on the materials delivered to site.
  • If irregularities develop during rolling which exceed 12mm when tested with a 3m straight edge, the surface should be loosened and premixed material added or removed as required before rolling again so as to achieve a uniform surface conforming to the desired grade and cross fall.

Dry Lean Concrete:

Fig-6: compaction of DLC

In recent years, rigid pavements (Portland cement concrete roads) are being constructed in many new projects due to added advantages of long service life, smoother riding surface, and little to no maintenance required. The government of India is encouraging the construction of cement concrete roads even at the village and Municipal levels. The current practices of the construction of cement concrete road for highways in India require a layer of dry lean concrete (DLC) as a base course over which pavement quality concrete slabs rest. It is one of the common and popular cement-treated sub-base/base for concrete pavements.

DLC is a no-slump plain concrete with a large ratio of aggregate to cement. It contains less amount of cement paste as compared to conventional concrete. DLC layer is an important part of modern rigid pavements. The major advantages of using DLC as base layer includes the provision of a uniform and strong support, high resistance to deformation, enhanced load transfer efficiency at joints, proper fixing of formwork & proper placement of dowel bar cradles in semi-mechanized construction, movement of construction equipment during construction of the roads, all-weather construction and finally a reduction in the depth of pavement slab required from the point of view of axle load consideration, etc.

Now a day, DLC is being also used during rehabilitation and strengthening of existing distressed bituminous roads with white topping. DLC is generally manufactured with ordinary Portland cement (OPC) as per IRC: SP-49: 1998 specification.

Prime coat over Granular Base-

The Primer shall be cationic bitumen emulsion SS1 grade conforming to IS:8887 or median curing cutback bitumen conforming to IS: 217 or as specified in the contract.

Type of surfaceRate of spray(kg/sq.m)
Stabilized soil bases/ Crusher Run Macadam0.9-1.2
Table 5: Quantity of bitumen emulsion for various types of granular surface
Type of surfaceType of cutbackRate of spray(kg/sq.m)
WMM/WBMMC 300.6-0.9
Stabilized soil bases/ Crusher Run MacadamMC 700.9-1.2
Table 6: Type and quantity of cutback bitumen for various type of Granular surface

#) The correct quantity of primer shall be decided by the Engineer and shall be such that it can be absorbed by the surface without causing rum-off excessive primer and to achieve desired penetration of about 8-10mm.

#) A primed surface shall be allowed to cure for at least 24 hrs or such other higher period as is found to be necessary to allow all the moisture/volatiles to evaporate before any subsequent surface treatment or mix is laid.

Tack coat:

The binder used for tack coat shall be either Cationic bitumen emulsion (RS 1) complying with IS: 8887 or suitable low viscosity paving bitumen of VG 10 grade conforming to IS 73.

Use of cutback bitumen RC: 70 as per IS: 217 shall be restricted only for sites at sub-zero temperatures or for emergency applications as directed by the Engineer.

Type of surfaceRate of spray(kg/sq.m)
Bituminous surfaces0.20-0.30
Granular surfaces treated with primer0.25-0.30
Cement concrete pavement0.30-0.35
Table 7: Rate of application of Tack Coat

No dilution or heating at site of RS 1 bitumen emulsion shall be permitted. Paving bitumen if used for tack coat shall be heated to appropriate temperature in bitumen boilers to achieve viscosity less than 2 poise.

The normal range of spraying temperature for a bituminous emulsion shall be 20°-70°C and for cutback 50°-80°C.

Dense Bitumen Macadam-

DBM is a binder course used for roads and with a greater number of commercial vehicles and a close-graded premix material having voids content of 5-10%.

 The thickness of a single layer shall be 50mm to 100mm.

Grain size analysisMax 5% passing 0.075mm sieve
Combined flakiness and elongation indicesMax 35%
LA test or Impact valueMax 35% or Max 27%
SoundnessMax 18%
Water absorptionMax 2%
Coating and stripping of Bitumen Aggregate MixMin retained coating 95%
Retained tensile strengthMin 80%
Table 8: Physical requirements for CA for DBM

While establishing the job mix formula, the contractor shall ensure that it is based on a correct and truly representative sample of the materials that will actually be used in the work and that the mix and its different ingredients satisfy the physical and strength requirements of the specifications.

It shall be ensured that the traffic is not allowed without the approval of the engineer in writing on the surface until the dense bituminous layer has cooled to the ambient temperature.

Bituminous Concrete

This work shall consist of the construction of Bituminous Concrete, for use in wearing and profile corrective courses. This work shall consist of construction in a single layer of bituminous concrete on a previously prepared bituminous bound surface. A single layer shall be 30mm/40mm/50mm thick.

Fig-7: Bituminous Concrete
Grain size analysisMax 5% passing 0.075mm sieve
Combined flakiness and elongation indicesMax 35%
LA test or Impact valueMax 30% or Max 24%
SoundnessMax 18%
Water absorptionMax 2%
Polished Stone ValueMin 55
Coating and stripping of Bitumen Aggregate MixMin retained coating 95%
Retained tensile strengthMin 80%
Table 8: Physical requirements for CA for DBM

Traffic Control of working zone:

The basic safety principles governing the design of roadways should also govern the design of Work Zones Traffic Management Plans (WTMPs). While designing the WTMP, all care needs to be taken so that anyone coming along the road or the footpath from any direction understands exactly what is happening and what is expected of him/her. The aim should be to facilitate the passage of road users through such work zones using roadway geometries, roadside features, and Traffic Control (TC) devices comparable to those for normal highway operations.

In 2-way traffic the working zone is covered by the obstructions in the way of 1:20 from both sides but in 1-way traffic slope should be provided in the flow of the traffic.

Traffic Control
Fig-8: Traffic Control

Defects of –

Carriageway and Paved shoulders-

  1.  Beach or blockade
  2. Roughness value exceeding 2500mm in a stretch of 1km (measured by roughometer)
  3. Pot holes
  4. Cracking in more than 5% of road surface in a stretch of 1 km
  5. Rutting exceeding 10mm in more than 2% of road surface in a stretch of 1 km (measured within 3m straight edge)
  6. Bleeding/Skidding
  7. Ravelling/Stripping of bitumen surface exceeding 10 sq.m.
  8. Damage to pavement edges exceeding 10cm
  9. Removal of Debris

Hard earth shoulders, side slopes, drains and culverts-

  1. Variation by more than 2% in the prescribed slope of camber/ cross fall
  2. Edge drop at shoulders exceeding 40mm
  3. Variation by more than 15% in the prescribed side(embankment) slope
  4. Rain cuts/gullies in slope
  5. Damage to or silting of culverts and side drains during and immediately preceding the rainy season
  6. Desilting of drains in urban/semi-urban areas

Road side furniture including road signs and pavement marking-

Damage to shape or position, poor visibility or loss of retro-reflectivity

Toll plaza-

  1. Failure of toll collection equipment and lighting
  2. Damage to toll plaza

Other project facilities and approach roads-

Damages or deterioration in approach roads, pedestrian facilities, truck lay-bys, bus-shelters, cattle crossings, traffic aid posts, medical aid posts and other work.

Pile Foundation-

A pile is basically a long cylinder of a strong material such as concrete that is pushed into the ground to act as steady support for structures built on top of it.

Pile foundations are used in the following situations:

  1. When there is a layer of weak soil at the surface. This layer cannot support the weight of the building, so the loads of the building have to bypass this layer and be transferred to the layer of stronger soil or rock that is below the weak layer.
  2. When a building has very heavy, concentrated loads, such as in a high-rise structure, bridge, or water tank.

Pile foundations are capable of taking higher loads than spread footings.

The construction of pile foundations requires a careful choice of the piling system depending on subsoil conditions and loading characteristics and type of structure. The permissible limits of total and differential settlements, unsupported length of the pile under scour, impact/entanglement of floating bodies, and any other special requirements of the project, are also equally important criteria for selection of the piling system. The method of installing the piles, including the details of the equipment, shall be submitted by the Contractor and got approved from the Engineer before the commencement of work.

Materials of making pile:

  1. Wooden
  2. Concrete
  3. Steel

Depth of boring-

  1. 1.5 times estimated length of pile in soil or 15 m below the proposed founding level
  2. 15 times diameter of pile in ordinary / jointed rock but15 m in such rock
  3. 4 times diameter of pile in hard rock but minimum 3 m in such rock

Type of piles-

Piles may be of reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete, steel or timber and circular, square, hexagonal, octagonal, “H” or “I” section in shape. Timber pile may be used for temporary bridges. Cast in-situ concrete piles also may be driven precast or bored precast.

Minimum diameter of concrete pile shall be 1m for river/ marine bridges. For bridges beyond the water zone and bridges on land, the minimum diameter may be 750mm.

 Cast in-situ concrete by TremiePrecast Concrete
Grade of concreteM35M35
Minimum cement content400kg/cum400kg/cum
Minimum water cement ratio0.40.40
Slump(mm) as measured at the time of placement150-20050-75
Table-9: Requirements for Concrete in piles
  • The reinforcement at the head of pile will need to be exposed for full anchorage length or 600mm whichever is greater and new bars overlapped for this distance.
  • The stirrup spacing shall in no case be greater than 150mm.
  • Where concrete is placed in dry and a casing is present, the top of 3 m of the pile shall be compacted using internal vibrators.
  • Diameter of tremie shall not be less than 200mm for use with 20mm diameter down aggregate.
  • The minimum weight of the hammer shall be 2.5tonn. In the case of precast concrete piles, the mass of the hammer shall not be less than 30 times the mass of 300mm length of pile.
  • In driven piles, the stroke of a single acting or drop hammer shall be limited to 1.2 m unless otherwise permitted by the engineer.
  • No pile shall be bored or driven within 3m of newly cast pile until at least 24 hours after completion of its installation.

Raker/Inclined Pile-

The Maximum rake to be permitted in piles shall not exceed the following:

  1. 1 in 6 for all bored piles
  2. 1 in 6 for cast-in-situ piles
  3. 1 in 4 for precast driven piles

Piles used in chhevali River- 32

Total Number of Piles for the BridgesMinimum Number of Test Piles
Upto 502
Beyond 1502% of total piles (fractional number rounded to next higher integer number)
Table-10: Minimum Number of Test

Tolerances for Piles:

Precast Concrete Piles:

  1. Variation in cross-sectional dimensions                           : +5mm, -5mm
  2. Variation in Length                                                           : +25mm, -25mm
  3. Surface irregularities measured with 3m straight edge     : 5mm
  4. Bow for total length of pile in mm                                    : 1mm/m length of pile limited to 20mm

Driven Piles:

  1. Variation in C/S dimensions                                        :  +50mm, -10mm
  2. Variation from vertical for vertical piles                     :  1 in 150
  3. For vertical piles deviation at piling platform level    :  75mm
  4. Variation of level of top of piles                                 :  +25mm, -25mm

Bored Piles:

  1. Variation in C/S dimensions                                        :  +50mm, -10mm
  2. Variation from vertical for vertical piles                     :  1 in 150
  3. For vertical piles deviation at piling platform level    :  75mm
  4. Variation of level of top of piles                                 :  +25mm, -25mm


India’s economic growth plan of over 6% per annum for the next 20 years will, to a great extent, depend on efficient road infrastructure, not only national highways but other roads too, including link roads for rural connectivity, which can provide fast movement of goods and people with safety and economical cost to the user, the government of India has drawn up Pradhan Mantri gram Sadak Yojana (PMGSY) for implementation of rural connectivity. It is estimated that in the next few years, road works under PMGSY worth Rs. 1,20,000 Crores are to be constructed.

Since road pavements are an important part of these projects, costing about 50% of the investment, a careful evaluation of the alternatives is necessary to make the right choice on a rational basis, which may be comparatively more beneficial to the nation.

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