Structured Irrigation Network

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INTRODUCTION TO IRRIGATION

´IRRIGATION IS THE ARTIFICIAL APPLICATION OF WATER TO THE LAND OR SOIL. ´IT IS USED TO ASSIST IN THE GROWING OF AGRICULTURAL CROPS, MAINTENANCE OF LANDSCAPES, AND REVEGETATION OF DISTURBED SOILS IN DRY AREAS AND DURING PERIODS OF INADEQUATE RAINFALL. ´IT IS ALSO USED IN DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE IN DESERT AREA AND IN THE IMPROVEMENT OF PERENNIAL CROP.

BENEFITS OF IRRIGATION

INCREASE IN CROP YIELD

PROTECTION FROM FAMINE

CULTIVATION OF SUPERIOR CROPS

ELIMINATION OF MIXED CROPPING

ECONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT ´

HYDRO-POWER GENERATION

DOMESTIC AND INDUSTRIAL WATER SUPPLY

EFFECTS OF IRRIGATION

´RISING OF WATER TABLE
´FORMATION OF MARSHY LAND
´DAMPNESS IN WEATHER
´LOSS OF VALUABLE LANDS

METHODS OF IRRIGATION

  1. SURFACE IRRIGATION
    1. FLOODING METHOD
    2. BORDER STRIP METHOD
    3. BASIN METHOD
    4. FURROW METHOD
  2. SUB-SURFACE IRRIGATION
  3. SPRINKLER IRRIGATION
  4. TRICKLE OR DRIP IRRIGATION

SURFACE IRRIGATION

´SURFACE IRRIGATION IS WHERE WATER IS APPLIED AND DISTRIBUTED OVER THE SOIL SURFACE BY GRAVITY. IT IS BY FAR THE MOST COMMON FORM OF IRRIGATION THROUGHOUT THE WORLD AND HAS BEEN PRACTICED IN MANY AREAS VIRTUALLY UNCHANGED FOR THOUSANDS OF YEARS.

SURFACE IRRIGATION

FLOOD METHOD

´THERE ARE MANY CASES WHERE CROPLANDS ARE IRRIGATED WITHOUT REGARD TO EFFICIENCY OR UNIFORMITY. THESE ARE GENERALLY SITUATIONS WHERE THE VALUE OF THE CROP IS VERY SMALL OR THE FIELD IS USED FOR GRAZING OR RECREATION PURPOSES. SMALL LAND HOLDINGS ARE GENERALLY NOT SUBJECT TO THE ARRAY OF SURFACE IRRIGATION PRACTICES OF THE LARGE COMMERCIAL FARMING SYSTEMS.

FLOOD METHOD

BORDER STRIP METHOD

´BORDER IRRIGATION CAN BE VIEWED AS AN EXTENSION OF BASIN IRRIGATION TO SLOPING, LONG RECTANGULAR OR CONTOURED FIELD SHAPES, WITH FREE DRAINING CONDITIONS AT THE LOWER END.
WATER IS APPLIED TO INDIVIDUAL BORDERS FROM SMALL HAND-DUG CHECKS FROM THE FIELD HEAD DITCH. WHEN THE WATER IS SHUT OFF, IT RECEDES FROM THE UPPER END TO THE LOWER END. SLOPING BORDERS ARE SUITABLE FOR NEARLY ANY CROP EXCEPT THOSE THAT REQUIRE PROLONGED PONDING.

BORDER STRIP METHOD

BASIN METHOD

´BASIN IRRIGATION IS THE MOST COMMON FORM OF SURFACE IRRIGATION, PARTICULARLY IN REGIONS WITH LAYOUTS OF SMALL FIELDS. IF A FIELD IS a LEVEL IN ALL DIRECTIONS, IS ENCOMPASSED BY A DYKE TO PREVENT RUNOFF, AND PROVIDES AN INDIRECT FLOW OF WATER ONTO THE FIELD, IT IS HEREIN CALLED A BASIN. A BASIN IS TYPICALLY SQUARE IN SHAPE BUT EXISTS IN ALL SORTS OF IRREGULAR AND RECTANGULAR CONFIGURATIONS.

BASIN METHOD

FURROW METHOD

´FURROW IRRIGATION AVOIDS FLOODING THE ENTIRE FIELD SURFACE BY CHANNELING THE FLOW ALONG THE PRIMARY DIRECTION OF THE FIELD USING ‘FURROWS,’ ‘CREASES,’ OR ‘CORRUGATIONS’. WATER INFILTRATES THROUGH THE WETTED PERIMETER AND SPREADS VERTICALLY AND HORIZONTALLY TO REFILL THE SOIL RESERVOIR.
THE DISTINCTIVE FEATURE OF FURROW IRRIGATION IS THAT THE FLOW INTO EACH FURROW IS INDEPENDENTLY SET AND CONTROLLED AS OPPOSED TO FURROWED BORDERS AND BASINS WHERE THE FLOW IS SET AND CONTROLLED ON A BORDER BY BORDER OR BASIN BY BASIN BASIS.

FURROW METHOD

SUBSURFACE IRRIGATION

´SUBSURFACE IRRIGATION USES A NETWORK OF POLYETHYLENE PIPES LOCATED JUST UNDER THE GROUND’S SURFACE TO APPLY DISINFECTED EFFLUENT IN THE ROOT ZONE OF PLANTS, PREVENTING AIRBORNE DRIFT AND MINIMIZING RUNOFF.
SUBSURFACE IRRIGATION REQUIRES LESS MAINTENANCE THAN SURFACE IRRIGATION, AND THERE IS ALSO LESS CHANCE OF SURFACE SATURATION AND EFFLUENT RUNOFF. BY REDUCING THE CHANCE OF HUMAN CONTACT, IT ALSO SIGNIFICANTLY REDUCES THE PUBLIC HEALTH RISKS.

SUB-SURFACE IRRIGATION

SPRINKLER IRRIGATION

´SPRINKLER IRRIGATION SYSTEM ALLOWS APPLICATION OF WATER UNDER HIGH PRESSURE WITH THE HELP OF A PUMP. IT RELEASES WATER SIMILAR TO RAINFALL THROUGH A SMALL DIAMETER NOZZLE PLACED IN THE PIPES. WATER IS DISTRIBUTED THROUGH A SYSTEM OF PIPES, SPRAYED INTO AIR AND IRRIGATES IN MOST OF THE SOIL TYPE DUE TO WIDE RANGE OF DISCHARGE CAPACITY.

SPRINKLER IRRIGATION

DRIP IRRIGATION

´DRIP IRRIGATION IS A TYPE OF MICRO-IRRIGATION SYSTEM THAT HAS THE POTENTIAL TO SAVE WATER AND NUTRIENTS BY ALLOWING WATER TO DRIP SLOWLY TO THE ROOTS OF PLANTS, EITHER FROM ABOVE THE SOIL SURFACE OR BURIED BELOW THE SURFACE. THE GOAL IS TO PLACE WATER DIRECTLY INTO THE ROOT ZONE AND MINIMIZE EVAPORATION.
DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEMS DISTRIBUTE WATER THROUGH A NETWORK OF VALVES, PIPES, TUBING, AND EMITTERS. DEPENDING ON HOW WELL DESIGNED, INSTALLED, MAINTAINED, AND OPERATED IT IS, A DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM CAN BE MORE EFFICIENT THAN OTHER TYPES OF IRRIGATION SYSTEMS, SUCH AS SURFACE  IRRIGATION OR SPRINKLER IRRIGATION.

DRIP IRRIGATION

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