WATER BOUND MACADAM BITUMINOUS ROAD
Uttar Pradesh Public Work Department, Mainpuri
SUMMER TRAINING REPORT
AKTU Roll No – 1684000051
In partial fulfilment of Industrial training for the award of the degree of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
Rajkiya Engineering College Mainpuri
Agra Road, Mainpuri – 205001
FROM JULY 1st JULY 2019 TO 1st AUGUST 2019
It is my pleasure to be indebted to various people, who directly or indirectly contributed in the development of this work and who influenced my thinking, behaviour and acts during the course of study.
I would like to place on record my deep sense of gratitude to Er. Neeraj Panchal, Executive Engineer for providing me an opportunity to do my internship training in Provincial Division PWD Mainpuri.
I am also thankful for support, cooperation and motivation provided to me by Er. Neeraj Kumar, Junior Engineer during the training period for constant inspiration, presence and blessings.
I am extremely thankful to my department faculties and Training & Placement Cell, REC Mainpuri and friends for giving valuable suggestions and encouragement.
I Suraj Kumar Roll no 1684000051 of Rajkiya Engineering College Mainpuri hereby certify that I have completed my for week training in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the award of Bachelor of Technology civil Engineering. I did my training in PWD MAINPURI dated from 1 July 2019 to 1 August 2019
The training report entitled water Bound Macadam Bituminous Road is an original work and has not been submitted by me for the award of any other degree elsewhere.
Place: Mainpuri Suraj Kumar
- WATER BOUND MACADAM BITUMINOUS ROAD
- PWD INTRODUCTION
- PURPOSE OF ROAD
- INTRODUCTION OF BITUMINOUS ROAD
- What is Asphalt?
- 1. Asphalt:
- 2. Stone:
- 3. Earth Materials:
- DETAILING AND ESTIMATION OF ROAD
- ROAD LAYERS
- BITUMINOUS ROAD CONSTRUCTION STEPS
- QUALITY CONTROL OF BITUMINOUS ROAD CONSTRUCTION-
- FINISHED SURFACE-
The Public Works Department is a government department that was responsible for buildings, roads, irrigation and railways.
Point of view geographic and population of the state is the nation’s largest state. State industrial economic and social development of the state and population of each village is absolutely necessary to re-connect to the main roads. In addition to state important national roads, state roads and district roads and their proper broad be made to improve the quality of traffic point of view is of particular importance.
Public work department builds roads and improve connectivity in rural zones, other district road and improvement of rural roads and main routes narrow construction of zones and depleted bridges brides reconstruction of the bases are transacted on a priority bases.
Successful operation of various schemes for the Public Works Department engineers and supervisory broads in different districts of the engineer’s office has been settled. Activities by planning, execution and quality control etc. remove impediments find joy in relation to the supervision over the activities are focused. Various schemes operated by the department of the Office of the regional Chief engineers and Chief engineer office.
Roads provide access to the outside world or the store around the corner. Roads take farm produce to market and children to school. Roads are the conduit of life’s activities. Roads make a crucial contribution to economic development and growth and bring important social benefits. They are of vital importance in order to make a nation grow and develop. In addition, providing access to employment, social, health and education services makes a road network crucial in fighting against poverty. Roads open up more areas and stimulate economic and social development. For those reasons, road infrastructure is the most important of all public assets.
Roads are primary mean of transportation. Roads play an important role in connecting people all over the world. It also gives its important contribution to the economic growth of a country. It is crucial as it helps to grow and develop a nation.
As roads are an important asset, it is necessary to maintain it so that it can run in a long way. The following are the few importance of roads:
- Roads are the cheapest and convenient way of transporting goods and people from one place to another.
- They are very flexible as compared to other forms of transport. The vehicles can be stopped anywhere and anytime if needed.
- Roads play a role of feeders to railways. Without the good roads, railways cannot collect sufficient produce to make their operation possible.
Along with these, there are a lot of other benefits. It is important to maintain it if you want to use it for a long time. These days, the best way to maintain them is by using asphalt. By constructing and maintaining roads with asphalt material helps in making their life longer. Asphalt laying services help in constructing roads in a better way in order to increase their life.
A road is a through, route or way on land between two places, which has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by some conveyance including a horse, cart or a motor vehicle. Road consist of one or sometimes two roadways each with one or more lanes and also associated sidewalks and verges. Roads that are available for used by the public may be referred to as public road or highways.
Everyone is aware about the benefits and advantages of good constructed road. Road plays a very crucial role in modern society providing services and goods for modern people. Today a vast majority of roads are constructed by using asphalt.
What is Asphalt?
Asphalt is the sticky dark brown viscous present in some natural some deposits like crude petroleum. It is the name given to technically or natural mixture used in road construction for road surfacing and compaction.
We see many roads daily and when we talk about the road construction all are equally constructed but there is a difference arising of the road or the surface material used for finishing. Asphalt also known as bitumen concrete in engineering language is used to give flexible surface to roads. Asphalt road offers many benefits such as smooth and flexible surface including cost efficiency, improve safety and comfort, durability, recyclability and reduction in noise pollution. Sometime asphalt and bitumen are confused with tar. Although they are same in colour they have distinct chemical properties.
Road construction is not as easy as it seems to be, it includes various steps and it starts with its designing and structure including the traffic volume consideration. Then base layer is done by bulldozers and levelers and after base surface coating has to be done. For giving road a smooth surface with flexibility, Asphalt concrete is used. Asphalt requires an aggregate sub base material layer and then a base layer to be put into first place. Asphalt road construction is formulated to support the heavy traffic load and climatic conditions. It is 100% recyclable and saving non-renewable resources.
With the advancement of technology, Asphalt technology gives assurance about the good drainage system and with skid resistant it can be used where safety is necessary such as outside the schools.
The largest use of Asphalt is for making asphalt concrete for road surfaces. It is widely used in airports around the world due to the sturdiness and ability to be repaired quickly, it is widely used for runways dedicated to aircraft landing and taking off. Asphalt is normally stored and transported at 150oC or 300oF temperature.
Pavement Material Asphalt and concrete are the most common paving materials found in the developed landscape. However, there are other strong, durable pavements that can add variety to the built landscape and help reduce pavement’s imperviousness. The following is a review of selected paving materials:
Bituminous concrete or asphalt is composed of aggregates bound together with asphalt cement. The aggregate is heated and mixed with hot (275º f) asphalt then taken to the construction site where it is placed, as a wearing surface, over a base course. The asphalt is laid by hand and paving machine, then rolled to force the mixture to firmly set. It is then allowed to cool typical asphalt pavement has a life expectancy of 20 years before it needs resurfacing. Asphalt pavement is composed of the following two layers, the wearing course and the base course.
The Wearing Course transfers and distributes traffic loads to the base course. The wearing course is actually composed of two layers, a 1-1/4″ to 1-1/2″ surface layer and a 3″ bonding layer. The bonding course penetrates voids in the sub base and binds the wearing course to the sub base aggregate.
Stone is a durable paving surface that is available in either natural or synthetic form.
Natural paving stone is graded based on its’ hardness, porosity and abrasion resistance. It is available either in cut or uncut form in various degrees of smoothness.
Examples of uncut or rubble stone, are broken quarry rock and river stone available in varying degrees of smoothness. Crushed stone of various sizes and hardness is used as sub-base for other surface materials, surface pavement or ground cover. When mixed with asphalt or concrete, crushed stone or aggregate is used in the wearing and base coarse of roads, drives, parking lot sand sidewalks. Larger stones are mixed with asphalt or concrete when a rougher or more porous surface is desired.
Earth materials used for paving include gravel, soil, granular products and turf. The volume of earth materials is determined by its state in the earth moving process.
For example a cubic yard of gravel as it lies in its natural, undisturbed state usually swells to1.25 cubic yards after it has been disturbed by excavation. The same quantity of gravel decreases in volume to about .90 cubic yards after it has been compacted by machinery on site.
Detailed estimates are relatively costly to produce in terms of time and effort but although the process is expensive the finished estimate has a degree of accuracy that is better than other type of estimate. Detailed estimating is usually carried out when the design is substantially complete and the drawings, planning and process sheets, etc. are available. Each item to be estimated is listed on the estimate work-up sheet together with it’s raw, bought-out and subcontract materials. The subassemblies identified are similarly broken down to show their constituent parts and the process of breaking down goes on until a single item or detail level is reached.
By using this technique, we start at the lowest level of definable work within the Work Breakdown Structure (i.e. a manufacturing operation). The hours required to complete the work are estimated from engineering drawings and specifications, using a company or general industry “standards”. Materials and purchase parts requirements are also estimated. Other types of estimates like Quality are normally factored from these production direct labor estimates. Project Management and System Engineering are normally based on team size over the project duration.
The estimator may use a variety of techniques in estimating the labor and material cost of each discrete work element. For example, he may use an analogy to estimate one work element; a parametric cost estimating relationship, based on an industry database of like work elements, to estimate another work element; and set of internally generated work standards based on work activities to estimate a third work element.
The sub grade is the layer of naturally occurring material or the fill material the road is built upon. The strength of the subgrade layer is measured using the CBR test. The strength of the subgrade layer is an important factor influencing the thickness of the road pavement design. Where the subgrade is weak, i.e., a low CBR, it will be necessary to capping layer over the subgrade to increase the actual road pavement thickness is designed.
When the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) of the sub grade is than 5 %, if it is normal to require a suitable capping layer of low cost material .This capping layer is usually a granular type material designed provide a working platform on which sub-grade construction can proceed with minimum interruption from wet weather. Capping is also to minimize the effect of a weak subgrade pavement strength.
The primary function of sub base layer are–
- Improve drainage.
- Minimize frost action damage.
- Provide a working platform for construction.
The material used in this layer-
- Granular Sub Base (GSB)
- Cement Bound Material.
This material is typically crushed stone, crushed slag, crushed concrete or non-plastic well-burnt shale.
It is a much finer material , has a much wider grading envelope and is of a lesser “engineering” qualify than GSB Type -1. Therefor it does not generate as much interlock as a type 1 and is consequently not a strong.
The road base is the main load-bearing, load, load spreading layer. In road structure usually 100 mm or more thick depending on the loading of the traffic for which the road is designed. The road base is usually a bituminous material, dense bitumen macadam (asphalt concrete) or hot rolled asphalt.
This is the layer of material below the surface course and above road base. The base course (binder course) is a load spreading layer, spreading the load imposed on the wearing course (surface course) over a wider area of the road base .Base course (binder course) is most commonly a bituminous material, can be either Hot rolled asphalt or dense bitumen Macadam (asphalt concrete).This is a strengthening layer of the pavement and should be at least 40 mm, preferably 50 mm thick.
The wearing course is top layer of the road pavement and is designed-
- To be impervious to the ingress (entering) of water.
- To have an even running surface.
- To be durable, and have a high resistance to skidding, and
- To be chosen so as not to deform the weight of traffic.
- SEAL COAT– It is a thin surface treatment used to waterproof the surface and to provide skid resistance.
- TACK COAT-It is a very light application of asphalt, usually, asphalt emulsion diluted with water. It provides proper bonding between two layers of binder course and must be thin, uniformly cover the entire surface, and set very fast. It sprays at the rate of 4.9 to 9.8 kg per 10-meter square are depending on the type of surface.
- PRIME COAT-It is an application of low viscous cutback bitumen to an absorbent surface like granular bases on which binder layer is placed. Unlike tack coat, the prime coat penetrates into the layer below, plugs the voids, and forms a watertight surface. It is sprayed by a mechanical sprayer at a rate of 7.3 to 14.5 kg per 10-meter square area depending upon the porosity of the surface.
A sieve analysis (gradation test) is a practice or procedure used (commonly used in civil engineering) to assess the particle size distribution (also called gradation) of granular material by allowing the material to pass through a series of sieves of progressively smaller mesh size and weighing the amount of material that is stopped by each sieve as a fraction of the whole mass.
The size distribution is often of critical importance to the way the material performs in use. A sieve analysis can be performed on any type of non-organic or organic granular materials including sands, crushed rock, clays, granite, feldspars, coal, soil a wide range of manufactured powders, grain, and seeds, down to a minimum size depending on the exact method. Being such a simple technique of particle sizing, it is probably the most common.
|Sieve Size (mm)||Weight of aggregate retained (gm)||Percentage of aggregate retained (%)||Cumulative percentage of aggregate retained (%)||Cumulative percentage of aggregate passing (%)|
Sum = 5000g.
The property of a material to resist impact is known as toughness. Due to the movement of vehicles on the road the aggregates are subjected to impact resulting in their breaking down into smaller pieces. The aggregates should, therefore, have sufficient toughness to resist their disintegration due to impact. This characteristic is measured by the impact value test. The aggregate impact value is a measure of resistance to sudden impact or shock, which may differ from its resistance to gradually applied compressive load. Classification of aggregates using Aggregate Impact Value is as given below-
|10 – 20%||Strong|
|20-30%||Satisfactory for road surfacing|
|>35%||Weak for road surfacing|
- The material which we have brought from the site of road no. 2 is firstly weighted (its weight was 2400gm).
- Then we have weighted the sample with the pan in which we have to wash the bitumen (its weight was 3500gms).
- Then by using petrol we have washed the bituminous material in an oven and then removed the petrol from it ,then we put the washed material into fire so that left aggregates should be properly dried and then again weighted with pan ( weight was 3395gms).
- Then after that we have got the amount of bitumen content which was (3500-3395=105gms).
- So the amount of bitumen used in the 2400gms of mixture was 105 gm.
- So to calculate the amount of bitumen content in the mixture was BITUMEN CONTENT = 105*100 / 2400 =4.375%
- And the prescribed bitumen content according to the job mix formula was between 4 to 4.5%.
- So the amount of bitumen in the mixture was in the correct proportion.
As base material of W.B.M. Road; stone ballast, concrete 10-15 cm layer are used. For bonding between concrete slab & W.B.M. used 1:2 cement wash on W.B.M.
10-15cm composite layer of sand, moorum, bajri are used for better drainage facilities.
It is desirable to lay the AC layer over a bituminous base or binder course. A tack coat of bitumen is applied at 4.9 to 9.8 kg per 10 sqm of area this quantity may be increased to 7.5 to 10 kg for a non-bituminous base.
Table5: Rate of Application of Tack Coat.
|Type of Surface||Rate of Spray (kg/sq.m)|
|Bituminous surfaces||0.20 – 0.30|
|Granular surfaces treated with primer||0.25 – 0.30|
The premix is prepared in a hot mix plant of a required capacity with the desired quality control. The bitumen may be heated up to 150 – 177deg C and the aggregate temperature should not differ by over 14deg C from the binder temperature. The hot mixed material is collected from the mixture by the transporters, carried to the location is spread by a mechanical paver at a temperature of 121 to 163deg C. The camber and the thickness of the layer are accurately verified. The control of the temperatures during the mixing and the compaction are of great significance in the strength of the resulting pavement structure.
A mix after it is placed on the base course is thoroughly compacted by rolling at a speed not more than 5km per hour. The initial or break down rolling is done by 8 to 12 tons roller and the intermediate rolling is done with a fixed wheel pneumatic roller of 15 to 30 tonnes having a tyre pressure of 7kg per sq.cm the wheels of the roller are kept damp with water. The number of passes required depends on the thickness of the layer. In warm weather rolling on the next day, helps to increase the density if the initial rolling was not adequate. The final rolling or finishing is done by 8 to 10 tonnes tandem roller.
The routine checks are carried out at site to ensure the quality of the resulting pavement mixture and the pavement surface.
Periodical checks are made for
- Aggregate grading
- Grade of bitumen
- The temperature of aggregate.
- The temperature of the paving mix during mixing and compaction.
At least one sample for every 100 tonnes of the mix discharged by the hot mix plant is collected and tested for above requirements. Marshall tests are also conducted. For every 100 sqm of the compacted surface, one test of the field density is conducted to check whether it is atleast 95% of the density obtained in the laboratory. The variation in the thickness allowed is 6mm per 4.5m length of construction.
Road is open to traffic as soon as bitumen gets cooled to its surrounding temperature.
- Ministry of Road Transportation and Highways, “Specifications for Road and Bridge Works”.
- IRC: 37-2001 Guidelines for the design of flexible pavements.
- Highway Engineering by S.K.KHANNA & C.E.G JUSTO & A.VEERARAGAVAN.
- IRC „Geometric of Roads‟, Indian road congress 1966.
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