Hazardous Waste

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Hazardous Waste

 Hazardous waste means wastes solid, sludge, liquids, and containerized gases other than radioactive and infectious wastes which, by reason of their chemical activity or toxic, explosive, corrosive, or other characteristics cause danger or likely will cause danger to health or to the environment, whether alone or when they come in contact with other waste.

 Laboratory tests may indicate that it exhibits one or more of the characteristics deemed to make a waste hazardous.  It may on the list of specific wastes compiled by the government because it is known or suspected to exhibit hazardous characteristics.

Hazardous Waste

Characteristics of Hazardous Waste

1.Ignitability
2.Create fires  under certain condition
3.Spontaneously combustible
4.Flash point > 600C
5.Corrosivity
6.Acids or bases
7.pH > or 2, pH< or=12.5
8.Capable of corroding metal containers
9.Battery Acid

10.Reactivity
11.Unstable under normal conditions
12.Explosions, toxic fumes, gases
13.Lithium-sulfur batteries and explosives
14.Toxicity

Generation of Hazardous Waste

 Hazardous waste is generated by specific industries and processes and are automatically considered hazardous based solely on the process that generates them and irrespective of whether a test of the waste shows any of the characteristics of hazardous waste.
Hazardous wastes are generated from a wide range of industrial, agricultural, commercial, and household activities.

Types of Hazardous waste

1.Heavy Metals
2.Halogenated Hydrocarbons
3.Synthetic Organic Chemicals
4.Radioactive Waste

Listed wastes

1.F-listed wastes are from non-specific sources
2.K-listed wastes are from specific Source
3.U-listed wastes are toxic wastes
4.P-listed wastes are acutely hazardous wastes

Heavy metals

1. Heavy Metals are contained primarily in the wastes of metal processing industries and industries producing pigments as ions or in certain compounds,
2.Metallic Elements
3.Soluble in Water
4.Ingested & absorbed into living tissues
5.Extremely toxic
6.Small amount have severe physiological & neurological consequences

Synthetic Organic Chemicals

  1. Man-made (anthropogenic) organic compound  through industrial synthesis, Some SOCs evaporates easily whereas others tend to remain dissolved in water or other
  2. Similar enough to natural organic compounds
  3. Interact with particular enzymes or other biochemical
  4. Acutely Poisonous
  5. Adverse effects of synthetic organic chemicals
    1. Mutagenesis
    2. Teratogenesis
    3. Carcinogenesis
    4. Other Effects

Major type of hazards

 The various type of Hazards can be classified-
1. Cultural Hazards
2. Biological Hazards
3. Chemical Hazards
4. Physical Hazards

Cultural hazardous

  1. Cultural Hazards are such as unsafe working conditions, smoking, poor diet, drugs, drinking, and poverty.
  2. Many hazards in the environment are a matter of personal choice and lifestyle.
  3. Other hazards are due to accidents and the lethal behavior of the people.
    ACCORDING TO WHO ESTIMATES THAT SMOKING KILLS ABOUT 431,000 AMERICANS PER YEAR, AN AVERAGE OF 1180 DEATHS PER DAY. SMOKING CAUSES MORE DEATHS EACH YEAR IN THE UNITED STATES THAN DO ALL ILLEGAL DRUGS AND ALCOHOL.

Chemical Hazards

1. Being flammable or explosive
2. Irritating or damaging the skin or lungs
3. Interfering with or preventing oxygen uptake and distribution
4. Inducing allergic reactions of the immune systems.
5. Many chemicals, such as heavy metals, organic solvents, and pesticides, are hazardous to human health even at very low concentrations
6. Mutagens
7. Teratogens
8. Carcinogens

Physical hazards

 Natural disasters, including hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, earthquakes, landslides, and volcanic eruptions, take a toll of human life and property each year. It can be argued that much of the loss brought on by natural disasters is a consequence of poor environmental stewardship. Hillsides and mountains are deforested, leaving the soil unprotected; people build homes and towns on floodplains, villages are nested up to volcanic mountains; and cities are constructed on known geological fault lines.

Household hazardous waste

1. Household hazardous waste is referred to as domestic hazardous waste. It is a waste that is generated from residential households.
2. The following list includes categories often applied to HHW:
3. Automotive Wastes
4. Pesticides
5. Electronics
6. Aerosols/Propane Cylinders
7. Caustics/Cleaning agents
8. Ammunition
9. Refrigerant-Containing appliances

The risk with hazardous waste

  1. Hazardous wastes cause many diseases in humans and other animal life. For example, a high concentration of arsenic and other heavy metals can cause diseases like
  2. Diarrhea
  3. Dysentery
  4. Hepatitis A and E
  5. Diabetes mellitus
  6. Bronchitis
  7. Heart Diseases
  8. Cancer of the lungs, bladder, skin, kidney, nose, and liver
  9. Hypertension, Hypersensitive heart disease

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