Hazardous waste means wastes solid, sludge, liquids, and containerized gases other than radioactive and infectious wastes which, by reason of their chemical activity or toxic, explosive, corrosive, or other characteristics cause danger or likely will cause danger to health or to the environment, whether alone or when they come in contact with other waste.
Laboratory tests may indicate that it exhibits one or more of the characteristics deemed to make a waste hazardous. It may on the list of specific wastes compiled by the government because it is known or suspected to exhibit hazardous characteristics.
Characteristics of Hazardous Waste
2.Create fires under certain condition
4.Flash point > 600C
6.Acids or bases
7.pH > or 2, pH< or=12.5
8.Capable of corroding metal containers
11.Unstable under normal conditions
12.Explosions, toxic fumes, gases
13.Lithium-sulfur batteries and explosives
Generation of Hazardous Waste
Hazardous waste is generated by specific industries and processes and are automatically considered hazardous based solely on the process that generates them and irrespective of whether a test of the waste shows any of the characteristics of hazardous waste.
Hazardous wastes are generated from a wide range of industrial, agricultural, commercial, and household activities.
Types of Hazardous waste
3.Synthetic Organic Chemicals
1.F-listed wastes are from non-specific sources
2.K-listed wastes are from specific Source
3.U-listed wastes are toxic wastes
4.P-listed wastes are acutely hazardous wastes
1. Heavy Metals are contained primarily in the wastes of metal processing industries and industries producing pigments as ions or in certain compounds,
3.Soluble in Water
4.Ingested & absorbed into living tissues
6.Small amount have severe physiological & neurological consequences
Synthetic Organic Chemicals
- Man-made (anthropogenic) organic compound through industrial synthesis, Some SOCs evaporates easily whereas others tend to remain dissolved in water or other
- Similar enough to natural organic compounds
- Interact with particular enzymes or other biochemical
- Acutely Poisonous
- Adverse effects of synthetic organic chemicals
- Other Effects
Major type of hazards
The various type of Hazards can be classified-
1. Cultural Hazards
2. Biological Hazards
3. Chemical Hazards
4. Physical Hazards
- Cultural Hazards are such as unsafe working conditions, smoking, poor diet, drugs, drinking, and poverty.
- Many hazards in the environment are a matter of personal choice and lifestyle.
- Other hazards are due to accidents and the lethal behavior of the people.
ACCORDING TO WHO ESTIMATES THAT SMOKING KILLS ABOUT 431,000 AMERICANS PER YEAR, AN AVERAGE OF 1180 DEATHS PER DAY. SMOKING CAUSES MORE DEATHS EACH YEAR IN THE UNITED STATES THAN DO ALL ILLEGAL DRUGS AND ALCOHOL.
1. Being flammable or explosive
2. Irritating or damaging the skin or lungs
3. Interfering with or preventing oxygen uptake and distribution
4. Inducing allergic reactions of the immune systems.
5. Many chemicals, such as heavy metals, organic solvents, and pesticides, are hazardous to human health even at very low concentrations
Natural disasters, including hurricanes, tornadoes, floods, earthquakes, landslides, and volcanic eruptions, take a toll of human life and property each year. It can be argued that much of the loss brought on by natural disasters is a consequence of poor environmental stewardship. Hillsides and mountains are deforested, leaving the soil unprotected; people build homes and towns on floodplains, villages are nested up to volcanic mountains; and cities are constructed on known geological fault lines.
Household hazardous waste
1. Household hazardous waste is referred to as domestic hazardous waste. It is a waste that is generated from residential households.
2. The following list includes categories often applied to HHW:
3. Automotive Wastes
6. Aerosols/Propane Cylinders
7. Caustics/Cleaning agents
9. Refrigerant-Containing appliances
The risk with hazardous waste
- Hazardous wastes cause many diseases in humans and other animal life. For example, a high concentration of arsenic and other heavy metals can cause diseases like
- Hepatitis A and E
- Diabetes mellitus
- Heart Diseases
- Cancer of the lungs, bladder, skin, kidney, nose, and liver
- Hypertension, Hypersensitive heart disease
- What is Solid Waste
- What do you know about the Waste Generation
- Processing of solid waste and On-site Handling by engineering System
- Transportation of Solid Waste
- Functional Elements of Solid Waste
- Landfill Disposal of Solid Waste
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