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  1. Introduction(CO2 )
  2. Effects
  3. Comparison of CO2  reducing strategies
  4. Carbon capture and storage
  5. Capturing of CO2
  6. Transportation of CO2
  7. Sequestration of CO2 
  8. India specific initiatives
  9. International agreements
  10. Major storage in the world
  11. Negative impacts of CCS
  12. Conclusion
  13. References

Carbon dioxide( INTRODUCTION)

•Carbon dioxide is the primary greenhouse gas that is contributing to recent climate change.  CO2 is absorbed and emitted naturally as part of the carbon cycle, through plant and animal respiration, volcanic eruptions, and ocean-atmosphere exchange.  Human activities, such as the burning of fossil fuels and changes in land use, release large amounts of CO2, causing concentrations in the atmosphere to rise.
•Percentage of CO2 has increased by  30% since the pre-industrialization period.


Effects on health-
•CO2  is an asphyxiant gas.
 Concentration of 7% may cause suffocation, even in the presence of sufficient oxygen, manifesting as dizziness, headache, and unconsciousness.

Effects on the environment-
•Carbon dioxide is an important greenhouse gas.
•Burning of carbon-based fuels since the industrial revolution has led to global warming.
•It is also a major cause of ocean acidification because it dissolves in water to form carbonic acid.

Comparison of CO2  reducing strategies

            Strategies           Advantages          Limitations
Enhance energy efficiency and energy conservation Saves energy 10% to 20% Expensive
Increase usage of clean fuelsNatural gas emits 40-50% less CO2  than coalHigh fuel cost
Adopt clean coal technologyLower emission of  air pollutantsSignificant investment needed to roll out technologies widely
Use of renewable energyNo or low greenhouse and toxic gas emissionsMost current renewable energies are more costly than conventional energy
Development of nuclear powerNo air pollutant and greenhouse gas emissionUsage is controversial
Afforestation and reforestationSimple approach to create natural and sustainable CO2 sinksRestricts/prevents land use for other applications
Carbon capture and storageCapture efficiency > 80%Very expensive technology

Carbon Capture and storage

This option for reducing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is known as carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration involves the capture and storage of carbon dioxide that would  otherwise be present in the atmosphere, contributing to the greenhouse effect.

CCS consists of 3 parts –
•Capturing CO2
•Transporting CO2
•Securely storing CO2



Transportation of CO2

Captured CO2 can be transported in a number of different ways, including by road tankers and railway, but for the volumes involved in CCS, pipeline and ship are the most practical and economical options.

   Pipeline is the most economical method for distances up to 1000-1500 km, depending on specific conditions and the volume transported. Beyond this distance, transport by ship may be more economical .

   At present, no planned CCS projects are based on marine transport of CO2
1. Ship transport
2. Pipeline transport

Transportation of SOLID WASTE

India specific initiatives 

•Project Surya – reduce black carbon by introducing efficient stove technologies, solar cookers, solar lamps and biogas plants.
•National Carbonaceous Aerosols Programme Project (NCAP) on Carbonaceous aerosol emissions, source apportionment and climate impacts (NCAP-COALESCE).
•Launched as part of India’s National Climate Action Programme. Under the leadership of IIT Bombay’s Interdisciplinary Programme in Climate Studies, this multi-institutional, coordinated project would enable teamwork in cutting-edge fundamental research to understand the sources, fate and impacts of carbonaceous aerosols, on climate change in the Indian region.
•The project would be a key step to build a strong knowledge base for India related to short-lived climate pollutants, including carbonaceous aerosols, as part of India’s broad commitment to climate action.

International mechanisms to reduce Greenhouse gases

•KYOTO PROTOCOL, 1997 – In a bid to curb carbon emissions and global warming, Kyoto Protocol was signed among various countries and it entered into force in 2005 which marked the beginning of its first commitment period till 2012 (second commitment period was agreed from 2013-20).
•Two major instruments of this protocol were –

 a. Global Environment Facility – It was established with the help of the World Bank, UNDP, and UNEP to transfer environmentally friendly technologies from developed countries to developing countries for checking the greenhouse gases emissions.
b. Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the UN – It has been started in the aftermath of the Kyoto protocol under which Carbon Credits can be traded as per Marrakesh Accord.

•REDD+, 2007 –( Reducing Emission from Deforestation and Degraded Lands +) is a mitigation program under Bali Action Plan which was conceptualized in 2007 to discuss over the post-Kyoto scenario. It was a mitigation plan for developing countries due to deforestation and degradation. It was India who proposed it. It aimed at sustainable management of the forests and enhancing forest carbon stock in developing countries.

• Copenhagen Summit, 2009 – In this COP, for the first time 2°C limit was set for global warming based on an IPCC report. BASICS countries also pledged voluntarily in this summit that their emission levels will be reduced by 25-45% by 2020 and their emission levels will never go above the levels of developed countries.

•Carbon Trading  – Carbon trading and carbon markets are a component of national and international attempts to mitigate the growth in concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Type of carbon trading-
ØEmissions trading
ØCarbon offsetting

Negative impacts of CCS

•Can damage the environment if leaked.
•The technology used in CCS can also increase certain aspects of air pollution.
•Technology is very expensive and largely unproven.
•Ocean sequestration can be lead to ocean acidification and thus lead to coral bleaching.


•CCS really plays the main role in the reduction of Greenhouse gases, but this is not enough. There is a need for more research which help in securing the storage and other protection technique.
•The challenges against the CCS is about the cost, it really need to reduce it.
•There are many gaps in knowledge which really need to clear out.
•Success of CCS project depends on encouraging other nations in developing and using CCS technologies incentive mechanisms and regulatory framework for providing sufficient support for the development of CCS technologies.


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